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"early bird" redirects here. For other uses, see Early Bird.
A lark, early bird, morning person, or (in Scandinavian countries) an A-person, is a person who usually gets up early in the morning and goes vĩ đại bed early in the evening. The term relates vĩ đại the birds known as larks, which are known vĩ đại sing before dawn. Human "larks" may sleep from around 10 p.m. vĩ đại 6 a.m. (or earlier), and tend vĩ đại feel most energetic just after they get up in the morning. They are thus well-suited for working the day shift.
The opposite of the lark is the owl, often awake at night. A person called a night owl is someone who usually stays up late and may feel most awake in the evening and at night. Researchers have traditionally used the terms morningness and eveningness vĩ đại describe these two chronotypes.
Till Roenneberg, a chronobiologist in Munich, has mapped the circadian rhythms of more than thở 200,000 people. Biological processes, including sleep-wake patterns, that display an oscillation of about 24 hours are called circadian rhythms. According vĩ đại Roenneberg, the distribution of circadian rhythms spans from the very early vĩ đại the very late chronotypes, similarly vĩ đại how height varies from short vĩ đại tall.
As circadian rhythm is independent of the number of hours of sleep a person needs, Roenneberg calculates the rhythm based on the midpoint of the sleep period. A person who goes vĩ đại bed at midnight and rises at 8 thus has the same chronotype as a person who goes vĩ đại bed at 1 a.m. and rises at 7; the midpoint of sleep is 4 a.m. for both of these individuals.
People with early chronotypes will usually not be able vĩ đại "sleep in", even if they have stayed up later than thở usual. While fit for a "lark-like" societal framework, they find it hard vĩ đại adapt vĩ đại a context where "sleeping in" is common: despite feeling refreshed in the morning, they may feel hampered socially when confronted with some kinds of social gatherings (such as soirées) that are often scheduled for the evening, even if most kinds of social events are not.
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People with late chronotypes go vĩ đại bed late and rise late. Forced vĩ đại arise earlier than thở their circadian rhythm dictates, they have a low toàn thân temperature and may require a few hours vĩ đại feel really awake. They are unable vĩ đại fall asleep as early as "larks" can.
A 2007 survey of over 55,000 people found that chronotypes tend vĩ đại follow a normal distribution, with extreme morning and evening types on the far ends. There are studies that suggest genes determine whether a person is a lark or an evening person in the same way it is implicated in people's attitude toward authority, unconventional behavior, as well as reading and television viewing habits. For instance, there is the case of the Per2 gen on chromosome 2, which was discovered in the early 1990s by Urs Albrecht and colleagues at the University of Fribourg in Switzerland. This gen regulates the circadian clock and a variant of it was found in families that demonstrated advanced sleep-phase syndrome. According vĩ đại the researchers, its existence in people skews sleep pattern even if the period also cover eight hours.
Age is also implicated in the way one becomes a morning or a night person. It is explained that, developmentally, people are generally night owls in their teens while they become larks later in life. Infants also tend vĩ đại be early risers.
Morning larks tend vĩ đại thrive in careers that start early in the morning. Industries that tend vĩ đại be favorable vĩ đại morning larks include farming, construction, and working for public utilities. Many employees in these industries start working at or before 7:00 a.m. Some professions are well-known for their early morning hours, including bakers, school teachers, dairy farmers, and surgeons.
Morning larks tend vĩ đại be less represented among the employees of restaurants, hotels, entertainment venues, and retail stores, which tend vĩ đại be open until later in the evening. However, morning larks may be perfectly suited vĩ đại the opening shift of a coffee cửa hàng, handling the morning rush at a khách sạn, or working on the morning news shows for radio or television. Morning larks may also work the early shift in round-the-clock industries, such as emergency services, transportation, healthcare, and manufacturing.
Many large businesses that operate in the evening or at night need employees at all levels, from entry-level employees vĩ đại managers vĩ đại skilled staff, whenever they are open. For example, most hospitals employ many types of workers around the clock:
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- non-medical staff such as security guards, IT specialists, cleaning and maintenance workers, cooks and food service staff, and admissions clerks;
- medical staff such as nurses, paramedics, radiology technicians, pharmacists, and phlebotomists;
- managers for each of the main hospital wards or activities, including janitorial supervisors and head nurses.
- ^ T, C. (1847). Lessons derived from the animal world. p. 269.
- ^ Horne JA, Östberg O (1976). "A self-assessment questionnaire vĩ đại determine morningness-eveningness in human circadian rhythms". Int J Chronobiol. 4 (2): 97–110. PMID 1027738.
- ^ Cohen, Deborah (2014). "Are you a lark or an owl?". BBC News. Retrieved 2018-07-21.
- ^ Foster, Russell G.; Kreitzman, Leon (2017). Circadian Rhythms: A Very Short Introduction. Oxford University Press. pp. 17–18. ISBN 9780198717683.
- ^ Feiler, Bruce (2016-01-09). "The Lark-Owl Scale: When Couples' Sleep Patterns Diverge". New York Times. Retrieved 2018-07-21.
- ^ Roenneberg, Till; Kuehnle, Tim; Juda, Myriam; Kantermann, Thomas; Allebrandt, Karla; Gordijn, Marijke; Merrow, Martha (December 2007). "Epidemiology of the human circadian clock". Sleep Medicine Reviews. 11 (6): 429–438. doi:10.1016/j.smrv.2007.07.005. hdl:11370/65d6f03a-88cd-405c-a067-4afbc1b9ba9d. ISSN 1087-0792. PMID 17936039.
- ^ Browning, Geil (2010). Emergenetics (R): Tap Into the New Science of Success. New York: Harper Collins. pp. 13. ISBN 9780060585358.
- ^ a b Hooper, Rowan (2018-09-04). Superhuman: Life at the Extremes of Our Capacity. Simon and Schuster. ISBN 9781501168727.
- ^ a b Carney, Colleen; Posner, Donn (2016). Cognitive Behavior Therapy for Insomnia in Those with Depression: A Guide for Clinicians. Oxon: Routledge. p. 8. ISBN 9780415738378.
- ^ a b c Torpey, Elka (October 2015). "Career Outlook: Careers for night owls and early birds". U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. Retrieved 2018-04-06.
- The Munich ChronoType Questionnaire (MCTQ)